Hesperian Health Guides

Uhlupho ngempilo yezingane ezisanda kuzalwa

Imikhuhlane ethatha amalanga kumbe amaviki ukubulala umuntu omdala, emntwaneni ithatha amahola amalutshwana ukumbulala.


Ingane elempilo enhle ayiphefumuli nzima. Nxa ilele, kufanele ikwanise ukuzivukela yodwa ngemuva kwamahola amabili kusiya kwamane. Ivuswa yindlala kumbe yisitshubo esimanzi. Lejwabu lengane kumele licwebezele, lanxa kulamaqhutshana (rash) kodwa ayaziphelela wodwa. Kodwa-ke ingane ephambana lempilo elotshwe phezulu kumele iye emtholampilo ngokuphangisa.

Isifo

Izifo ezidalwa ngagciwane (bacteria, virus) ziyingozi kakhulu ezinganini. Lezi zifo zelatshwa (ngemithi eyadalelwa ukulwa lamagciwane (antibiotics). Kodwa kuyangokuthi ulolwazi oluphezulu okungakana ngokwelapha. Mhlawumbe unganikeza isigulane, qede uyedinga usizo olungcono kwabanye.

IZIMPAWU EZIYINGOZI
  • Ukukhefuzela: ukukhefuzela okungaphezulu kwamatshumi ayisithupha emzuzweni owodwa, nxa ingane ilele loba iziphumulele. (60 breaths in a minute).
  • Ukuhodoza: isifuba siwele phakathi, uyahodoza nxa ephefumula, amakhala asevulekile, ulele loba ukhangela kuyafana ukuphefumula kwakhe.
NWTND Newb Page 12-1.png
isifuba siwele phakathi
amakhala apapileyo
  • Uqhuqho: izinga lokutshisa lingaphezu kwe 37.5°C kumbe njalo. Lingaphansi kwe 35.5°C.
  • Amaqhubu emzimbeni afana lentshabusuku kumbe ama pimples. Kodwa amaqhutshana awalahlupho.
  • Ingane ayikwanisi ukudla.
  • Ingalala ingane ayifuni ukuvuka. Lanxa uyivusa ayinyakazi.
  • Izithuthwane: ukulahlekelwa yingqondo njalo lokuqhatshaqhatsha angathi umoya usuphela.


Zonke lezi zimpawu ezibonisa ukuthi ingane kumele iyelatshwe.

UKWELAPHA

Nxa ucabangela ukuthi ingane isilesifo esithethe kumagciwane (bacteria, virus) lanxa ingaguli kabuhlungu yinikeze umuthi okuthiwa Ampicillin loba i Amoxicillin. Kodwa nxa kuyiqinela ingane phangisa uyihlabe ijekiseni ye Ampicillin le Gentamicin ukuze uthole uncedo ngezokwelapha. Inani lomuthi ongalifaka enganini kuya ngokuthi leyo ngane isikhule okungakanani njalo ilesisindo esingakanani.

Ingane kumele ibonise ukubangcono ngemuva kwamalanga amabili. Kodwa nxa kusehlula, hatshi lapho kuyabesekufuneka eminye imithi elamandla.

NWTND Newb Page 13-1.png
Chola amaphilisi i Antibiotics uhlanganise lochago lwengane andubana uzayifunza. Amanye ama-Antibiotics ahlatshwa ngejekiseni. Uhlaba eceleni ngasemlenzeni. Nxa ufuna ulwazi olugcweleyo ngokuhlaba ijekiseni, funda ku: Medicine, Tests, and Treatment (in development).

Nxa kuyikuthi umama wakhe wagula umkhuhlane woqhuqho ngesikhathi ehelelwa, qaphela. Hlolisisa zonke izimpawu eziyingozi enganini. Njengenjwayelo, ingane ekhupha amaphumelo isesesiswini sikanina kuvame ukuthi ihotshe amaphumelo ayo ngesikhathi izalwa. Njalo imbelekho zayo zingcolile ngengcekeza engumbala oluhlazana buhlangene lobunyama obubomvana. Futhi lejwabu layo lilengcekeza elombala oyi yellow. Yonke leyingcekeza idala imikhuhlane emaphatshini wengane. Kungakho kumele uhle uyelaphe khonapho masinyane iqeda kuzalwa.

Ukukhala

a man holding a crying baby while speaking to a woman.
Letha ingane kimi, lawe uphumule.

Ezinye izingane ziyinkali. Ingane ekhalayo ilungile nxa kuyikuthi ayiguli. Kodwa yihlole njalo ukuthi iphefumula kuhle ngesikhathi ithule ukuze ubone ukuthi ayilahlupho.

Ingane ekhala ingathule – kakhulukazi ebusuku kuthiwa yinkali (colic). Njalo izinga lokukhala liyehla nxa layo ikhula kusiya kunyanga ezintathu. Phela umakhala akazi ubuzima abethesa abazali bakhe. Kungakho kumele libazwele omama abalezingane ezincane. Basizeni lapho elikwanisa khona ukuze baphumule.

Kodwa nxa ingane itshonela ukukhala ilanga lonke, ingadli, umzimba utshisa kumbe njalo isiphefumula nzima, qaphela! Ingane ingabe isingenwe ngumkhuhlane, funda Isifo.

Ukuhlanza

NWTND Newb Page 14-1.png

Umlomo wengane nxa usuphalaza ukudla ngamadla kuthiwa yikuhlanza. Kodwa nxa umlomo wengane ukhaphaza uchago elumunyayo kuthiwa yikuphoqoza. Lanxa ukuhlanza kwengane kungethusi, kodwa kumele iyehlolwa ngabezempilo ukuqinisekisa ukuthi iphilile.

IZIMPAWU EZIYINGOZI
  • Ingane nxa ihlanza iphindaphinda, ukudla kungasahlali esiswini.
  • Ukuhlanza igazi.
  • Izimpawu zokucaka, kumbe zokuphela amanzi emzimbeni.


Akumangalisi ukubona ingane iphoqoza. Mhlawumbe iyabe imunye yaze yedlulisa yikho iphoqoza. Kwesinye isikhathi iyaphoqoza ize ikhuphe langamakhala. Kodwa okubalulekileyo yikuthi ingane idle njalo ikhule kuhle. Njalo nxa ingane iqenda ukudla zama ukuyibamba umzimba uqonde phezulu.

illustration of the below: burping the baby.
Ingane nxa iqeda ukudla, ibeke ehlombe lakho, kumbe emadolo andubana uzayimbambatha kuhle eqolo ukuze ibhodle. Ukubhodla kusiza kakhulu ukukhuphela phandle wonke umoya ewuginye ngesikhathi isidla.

Ukuwoma (ukuphela amanzi emzimbeni)

Kulula ukuthi izingane ziphelelwe ngamanzi emzimbeni. Kuyingozi enkulu-ke lokho.

IMBANGELA
  • Ukuhuda.
  • Ukuhlanza.
  • Ukumunya ngemuva kwesikhathi eside sekwedlule amahola amabili loba amane (2 – 4hrs).
  • Ukudla loba ukunatha okungayisilo chago lukamama(uchago lwamagabha, iyambazi, loba amanzi wodwa).
  • Ukutshisa komkhathi
IZIMPAWU
  • Ukuchama ngemuva kwesikhathi eside, kumbe ukuchama umchamo ojiyileyo njalo onukayo. Ukuwoma umlomo lolimi.
  • Amehlo adanileyo lejwabu eliswabileyo.

Ukuwoma komzimba kwenza amehlo awele emagodini, lenkanda yomntwana iyawela, lomzimba wengane ubalula njalo ayinyakazi.

NWTND Newb Page 15-1.png
UKWELAPHA

Thatha isinqumo masinya nxa ubona ingane iphela amandla ngenxa yokuhlanza loba ngokuhuda. Nxa ikwanisa ukunatha lokumunya, imunyise kakhulu. Njalo hlala uyinathisa amanzi ngemuva kwamahola amabili. Mhlawumbe ungayinikeza amanzi ale sawudo le tshukela ulandela indlela okuchasiswe ngayo Belly Pain, Diarrhea and Worms.

Nxa leyo ngane ephelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni ilokhu ingabonisi ubungcono ngemuva kwamahola athile, xhumana labezempilo bakusize. Kumele umzimba wengane ufakwe amanzi ukuze ibelamandla.

Amaqhutshana

Kuvamile ukuthi ingane iphunywe ngamaqhutshana lamatshatshazi emzimbeni. Akuhluphi lokho, kuyaziphelela kodwa. Lawa amaqhutshana aphuma ezibunu zengane adalwa yibumanzi bomchamo kumbe ubumanzi bamaphumelo ahlala isikhathi eside. Kumele uhlale uyisulasula. Uyitshintsha lezitshubo nxa sezimanzi kanye lezigqoko nxa sezingcolile. Nxa ingane seyikhulakhulile njalo lomkhathi phandle ukudumala, iyekele ihambe nqunu ukuze izibunu zelapheke kumaqhutshana. Nxa ufuna ungayigcoba amafutha we Zinc Oxide. Kodwa nxa kulokhe kusehlula, mhlawumbe kuyabe sekuyisifo se Yeast infection. Lapha-ke ungasebenzisa amafutha we Nystatin cream.

Amagciwane angadala amaqhutshana ngawe Dingindi, le Chickenpox le Rubella. Amaqhutshana lawa ayakwanisa ukusabala emzimbeni wonke. Kodwa kuvame ukuthi uqhuqho luhlasele umzimba kuqala, kucine ngokuphuma amaqhutshana. Eminye yemikhuhlane edalwa yimiyane yi Dengue le Chikungunyu. Leyi mkhuhlane yenza umzimba uphume amaqhutshana.

Jaundice

Nxa ijwabu loba amehlo etshintsha esiba yi yellow kudalwa yi Jaundice. Kodwa enganini elombala omnyama, iJaundice ihlolwa emehlweni. Kuvamile ukuthi nxa ingane imunya kuhle, iJaundice iyaphela yodwa ngokuqubeka kwesuku. Ngakho vusa ingane imunye kungakadluli amahola amabili. Njalo lelanga liyafuneka kungane ezelweyo. Nxa umkhathi ukhudumala phandle, hlubula ingane izigqoko, qede uyibeke elangeni okwemizuzo emihlanu. Ungakwenza lokhu kanye kumbe kabili ngelanga. Kodwa qaphela! Nxa ubeka ingane elangeni kumele uyivale amehlo. Futhi ungayibeki elangeni okwethuba elide ngoba ilanga lingayixathula ijwabu.

Akuvamanga ukuthi ingane igule kabuhlungu nge Jaundice, kuyethusa lokho. Kodwa ungabona izimpawu ezinjengalezi, dinga usizo:

IZIMPAWU EZIYINGOZI
  • I Jaundice ibonakala masinyane ingane iseselusane olulelanga elilodwa (24 hrs).
  • I Jaundice iyacatsha ekuqale, ize ivele ngemva kwesuku ezithile njalo yembose wonke umzimba.
  • Ingane ele Jaundice ithanda ubuthongo, njalo kunzima ukuyivusa ukuthi idle.

Amehlo

illustration of the above: a goopy eye.

Kulembotshana emehlweni lapho kuphuma khona inyembezi lamafutha ayiwo athambisa amehlo. Nxa lezo mbotshana zingavaleka amehlo awakwanisi ukucwayiza. Kumele usule ngelembu elimanzi elihlanzekileyo njalo elikhudumala. Tshintsha ilembu nxa usula ilihlo elilandelayo. Lokho kwenzela ukuthi nxa elinye ilihlo lilesifo lingatheleli elinye.

Abafazi abanengi balengulamakwa ye Chlamydia le Gonorrhea kodwa bona abazi. Khungokho, faka iAntibiotic amehlweni wengane esanda kuzalwa. Umuthi wamehlo uvikela amagciwane avela kumama ukuthi angachaphakeli enganini.

Ungabona ingane elamalanga amahlanu izelwe ilamehlo abomvu, lenkophe ezivuvukileyo njalo kulegazi elilobomvu lokho kubonisa ingulamakwa. Igciwane le Chlamydia loba ele Gonorrhea lingabe selisemehlweni. I Chlamydia iyelatshwa nge Erythromycin. Ifake emlonyeni, loba ichole usuyihlanganisa lochago lukamama andubana uzanathisa ingane. I Gonorrhea iyelatshwa ngejekiseni ye Ceftriaxone. Kuqakathekile ukuthi nxa ungalaqiniso lokuthi yisifo bani esisenganini, kungcono usebenzise imithi leyi yombili. Unina loyise wengane kumele bayelatshwa iChlamydia le Gonorrhea. Funda ku: Genital Problems and Infections - in development.

Nxa kuyikuthi ngemuva kwelanga kusiya kwambili akulatshintsho olungcono emehlweni wengane, sebenzisa olunye uhlobo lwe Antibiotics. Vikela ingane ingabi yisiphofu. Phuma uyedinga usizo.

Inkanda

Inkanda kufanele ilingane kuhle ekhanda. Kodwa eweleyo kumbe edumbileyo iyingozi.

NWTND Newb Page 16-3.png
NWTND Newb Page 16-2.png
Inkanda eweleyo ibonisa ukuswela amanzi emzimbeni. Imunyise leyingane njalo inathise amanzi. Inkanda edumbileyo ibonisa isifo se Meningitis. Yelapha ingane nge Antibiotics.

Imbeleko

Imbeleko nxa isiqunyiwe, yekela, tshiya ingini (isidindi) sodwa sinjalo singavalwanga. Kodwa qaphela izitshubo lezigqoko zingangcolisi ingini. Lawe ungayithinti. Geza ngamanzi alesepa nxa ufuna ukuyithinta. Nxa ingini isilengcekeza loba isimbozwe ligazi elomileyo, yenza kanje: gezisa kuhle ngamanzi alesepa ngelembu elihlanzekileyo.

Kodwa nxa unina wengane ekhethe ukubopha ingini, kumele angaze wabopha kuqine nko, njalo abophe ngozwezwe lwelembu elihlanzekileyo, njalo futhi atshintshe kanengi ngelanga lelilenjana efake elitsha.

NWTND Newb Page 17-1.png
Dlalela kude lenkaba esabotshiweyo ukuze lezifo zingasondeli.

Ingini yenkaba le kumele yome yodwa ngemva kweviki ize ikhithikele phansi. Nxa enkabeni kuhlubekile kwababomvu, kutshisa, kunuka njalo kuchinca ubomvu, kuyabe sekungenwe yisifo. Gezisa kuhle andubana uzanikeza ingane umuthi iAmoxicillin.

Nxa ingane inyenama angathi iyenyanya, ingafuni ukumunya, loba njalo iqinisa umzimba mhlawumbe inkaba ingabe isilesifo se Tetanus. Gijima uxhumane labezempilo ngokuphangisa.



Create your own user feedback survey


Lelikhasi langezelelwa:17 Sep 2020