Hesperian Health Guides

Izingane ezisanda kuzalwa lokumunya: Imithi

Imithi elwa lezifo

Ampicillin le Amoxicillin


I Ampicillin le Amoxicillin yimithi ekuqembu le penicillins njalo yelapha nxazombili. Kutsho ukuthi ibulala imihlobo eminengi yamagciwane. Imithi leyi isebenza ngokufananayo. Lapho abakhuthaza khona ukusebenzisa iAmpicillin, nxa ufuna ungatshintsha usebenzise iAmoxicillin esikhundleni seAmpicillin, igqobo nje uzalandela isilinganiso esifunekayo.

I Ampicillin le Amaxicillin iphephile ukuyisebenzisa. Ungayisebenzisa nxa uhlatshwe yisihlabo, loba indlebe ilesifo. I Ampicillin iqakathekile lekwelapheni iMeningitis, njalo lakwezinye izifo ezithanda ukuhlasela izingane ezisanda kuzalwa.

Imphumela engamihle ngemithiGreen-effects-nwtnd.png

Yonke leyi mithi, kakhulukazi iAmpicillin ivame ukuhudisa njalo lokunenkisa inhliziyo (nausea). Kungakho, ungaze wanathisa abantwana abavele belesihudo, kodwa ungabanika omunye umhlobo we Antibiotic.

Okunye okubi ngaleyimithi yikuthi idala amaqhutshana emzimbeni. Ingane nxa iqeda ukunatha umuthi, ubone umzimba wayo usuqubuka njalo uluma, kutsho ukuthi umzimba awuhambisani le penicillins. Yekela ipenicillins, nikeza ingane omunye umuthi. Kwezinye inhlungu, ungasebenzisa le Erythromycin. Kawethusi amaqhutshana aphuma ngemuva kweviki ingane isiqalile ukuthatha umuthi, qede aphele wodwa. Kodwa ngeke sazi iqiniso, kugcono sime ukunika ingane lowomuthi size sithole iqiniso elidala lokho.

OkuqakathekileyoNBgrnimportant.png

Iyanda impikiswano ngamadla wokusebenza kwaleyimithi. Mhlawumbe vele seyaphela amadla wokubulala amagciwane we Staphlococcus, Shigella leminye imikhuhlane. Kodwa lokho kuyangokuthi uhlala kusiphi isigaba selizwe.

Yisebenzise kanjNBgrninjectpill.png

I Ampicillin le Amoxicillin isebenza ngcono nxa uyiginya. qala uchole amaphilisi andubana uzayinathisa. Nxa kuzimbumbuluzi ze Capsule, vula ikhasana lelo, qede usebenzise imputshana eyisilinganiso sengane. vubanisa lochago lukamama. Funza-ke ingane nge komitshi loba ngesipunu. Okunye, iAmpicillin ungayihlaba iyijekiseni enganini egula kakhulu; enganini ephethwe yiMeningitis; loba enganini ehlanza okungelamkhawulo.

Njengayo yonke imithi, nikeza isigulani umuthi okwensuku ezilutshwana ezingaphansi kwalezo ezilotshiweyo. Kodwa nxa umuntu elokhu egula, lawe qubeka ngomuthi aze abengcono. Uzayekela kuphela nxa sokwedlule inani eliphezulu lezinsuku (maximum days) elokhu egula. Lapho-ke xhumana labezempilo ngokuphangisa. Kakhulu abantu abalegciwane lengculaza yibo abathatha umuthi kuze kuthi ngqe kunani lensuku eziphuzulu (maximum days).

Njengenjayelo, inani le Antibiotic ethathwa ngumuntu kuya ngokuthi ukhule okungakanani; ulesisindo esingakanani njalo umkhuhlane wakhe unzima okungakanani. Ngamafitshane: nikeza umntwana olomzimba omncane kumbe ogula kancane umuthi omlutshwana. Nikeza olomzimba omkhulu kumbe ogula kakhulu umuthi omnengi.

AMOXICILLIN
Izifo zengane esanda kuzalwa
Nikeza i 62mg, kathathu ngelanga okwamalanga amathathu kusiya kwayisikhombisa. Isilinganiso ngasinye yi:
¼ ye 250mg capsule KUMBE
½ teaspoon (2.5ml) ye 125mg/5ml syrup KUMBE
¼ teaspoon(1.25ml) ye 250mg/5ml syrup.


AMPICILLIN
Izifo zengane esanda kuzalwa
Nikeza i 125mg, kathathu ngelanga okwamalanga amathathu kusiya kwayisikhombisa.   Isilinganiso ngasinye yi:
½ ye 250 mg capsule KUMBE
1 tsp (5ml) ye 125mg/5ml syrup.

Izifo ezinzima kuzingane ezisanda kuzalwa ezinjenge Meningitis
Hlaba ijekiseni ye Ampicillin kanye leye Gentamicin emlenzeni. Funda ngokuhlaba ijekiseni (Medicines, Tests, and Treatment in development).

2ml yamanzi acengiweyo (sterile water) hlanganisa le 500mg ye Ampicillin. Lokhu kujiya kube yi 500mg per 2.5ml. Sebenzisa i 2ml ye Gentamicin (undiluted) ku 40ml per ml.

OkuqakathekileyoNBgrnimportant.png

I Gentamicin yi Antibiotic elamandla kuhlobo lwe Aminoglycoside. Isetshenziswa kuphela ngejekiseni. (Nge Iv engeniswa emthanjeni). Lumuthi ulamandla kakhulu. Ungakulimaza izinso kanye lendlebe ucine ungasezwa. Yingakho usetshenziswa kuphela usendleleni yokuya esibhedlela. Nxa ingane ingaselamanzi emzimbeni (dehydrated) phangisa uyimunyise loba uyinathise.

Usane olungaphansi kweviki luzelwe
AMPICILLIN: Hlaba ijekiseni ye 500mg per kg, kabili ngelanga okwensuku ezinhlanu
NJALO
GENTAMICIN: Hlaba ijekiseni eyi 5mg per kg, kanye ngelanga okwensuku ezinhlanu.
Ungaze wadlulisa amalanga alitshumi.
Ingane eleviki kusiya kunyanga izelwe
AMPICILLIN: Hlaba ijekiseni eyi 50mg per kg, kathathu ngelanga okwensuku ezinhlanu
NJALO
GENTAMICIN: Hlaba ijekiseni eyi 7.5mg per kg, kanye ngelanga okwensuku ezinhlanu.
Ungaze wadlulisa amalanga alitshumi.

Erythromycin


Erythromycin yelapha izifo ezifanayo lezelatshwa nge penicillin. Isetshenziswa yilabo abalemizimba engahambisani le penicillin. I Erythromycin iyasetshenziswa futhi lasemkhuhlaneni eminengi esikhundleni se tetracycline. Iyelapha futhi lokukhwehlela okunzima okudalwa yimikhuhlane i diphtheria le pertussis (ukukwehlela okubuhlungu).

Imphumela engamihle ngemithiGreen-effects-nwtnd.png

Kuvamile ukuthi i Erythromycin inenkise inhliziyo, kwesinye isikhathi iyahudisa, kakhulu ebantwaneni. Njalo ungayisebenzisi kuze kweqe amaviki amabili ngoba lokho kungadala i jaundice.

Yisebenzise kanjNBgrnspoon.png
Izingane ezisanda kuzalwa kusiya kwezilenyanga ubudala
Nikeza i 30mg kumbe i 50mg per kg nsukuzonke. Lokho kufanele ukwehlukanise kube yiziqa ezintathu ozazinatha ngosuku olulodwa (3 doses a day). Sebenzisa okwensuku eziyi 7 kusiya ku 10.


Kuzingane ezilesisindo esiyi 3kg, isilinganiso ngasinye (each dose) kumele sibe yi:
0.75ml (lokhu kungaphezu kwe ⅛ teaspoon) ye 250mg/5ml ye Erythromycin syrup, KUMBE
62mg (¼ ye 250mg yamaphilisi) hlanganisa lochago lukamama loba nje lamanzi.


Isifo samabele (mastitis) kumama omunyisayo
Nikeza i 250 kumbe i 500mg (1 loba 2 amaphilisi ayi 250mg), kane ngelanga okwensuku ezilitshumi (4 times a day for 10 days).

Ceftriaxone


Umuthi we Ceftriaxone ngomunye yemithi yohlobo lwe Cephalosporins antibiotics. Usebenza ukulwa lemihlobo eminengi yamagciwane. Uyadula, yikho ungatholakali lula. Futhi awuhlukumezi umzimba njengeminye imithi. Uyelapha imikhuhlane enzima njenge Sepsis le Meningitis kanye leminye imikhuhlane eyehlula i penicillin. I Ceftriaxone yelapha kuphela izifo okuqondiswe kuzo njalo langemvumo yendawo yakhini. Lokhu kuvikela ukuthi izifo zingabilenkani, umuthi uhlale ulamandla unqoba ngasosonke isikhathi. Futhi iCeftriaxone iyelapha lesifo se Gonorrhea engena emehlweni wengane nxa isanda kuzalwa. Nansi isixwayiswo: ungaze wayisebenzisa ezinganini ezingaphansi kweviki kusiya kunyanga zizelwe.

OkuqakathekileyoNBgrnimportant.png

Ungalingi usebenzise iCeftriaxone enganini engaphansi kweviki izelwe. Ungaze wayisebenzisa lasezinganini ezizelwe inyanga zingakakwani, kunye lakulabo abale jaundice.

Yisebenzise kanjNBgrninject.png

I Ceftriaxone itholakala kumajekiseni kuphela, kumbe Iv (ijekiseni ehlatshwa emthanjeni). Kubuhlungu ukuhlatshwa ijekiseni. Hlanganisa i Ceftriaxone le 1% ye Lidocaine nxa ulolwazi.

Isifo seGonorrhea ngasemehlweni wengane elensuku eziyisikhombisa kusiya phezulu
Hlaba i 50mg per kg, kanye kuphela. Ungaze wasebenzisa okungaphezu kwe125mg.  
Izifo ezinzima lapho kungekho khona eminye yemithi ye Antibiotics eyezingane loba eyabantwana abalensuku ezingaphezulu kwesikhombisa ubudala
Hlaba ijekiseni ye 75mg per kg, kanye ngelanga okwensuku eziyi 7 kusiya ku 10. Ngakho:  
Elesisindo esiyi 3kg, hlaba i 225mg kanye ngelanga.
Ingane elesisindo esiyi 6kg, hlaba ijekiseni ye 450mg kanye ngelanga.



Lelikhasi langezelelwa:17 Sep 2020