Hesperian Health Guides

Emaholeni ambalwa alandelayo

Ngemuva kwehola kusiya kwamabili ingane izelwe, njalo isimunyile kuhle, njalo lomdlezane eqinile engasawophi igazi – hlola-ke kuhle ingane. Hlola usukela ekhanda usehla usiya phansi emazwanini. Kodwa ungaze wagodolisa ingane ngesikhathi uyihlola.

Imithi yezingane ezisanda kuzalwa

Nxa umdlezane elesifo sengulamakwa (Gonorrhea kumbe iChlamydia) – izifo esihlasela ngasese, thatha inyathelo masinya ngoba ingane ingalimali amehlo icine isiyisiphofu. Phela kuvamile ukuthi umuntu wesifazana abelengulamakwa kodwa yena engazi. Ngakho iyavikelaka ingane ukuthi ingathatheli ingulamakwa kunina. Ivikelelwa ngokuthi unina loyise bahlolwe zonke izifo zecansi (sexually Transmitted Infections). Funda ngempawu njalo langokwelatshwa kwezifo zangasese kusihloko esithi: Uhlupho lwezifo zangasese lokuthelelana (Genital Problems and Infections). Ungavikela amehlo wesane ukuthi engabulawa yigciwane leGonorrhea loba eleChlamydia ngokufaka umuthi. Faka kancane emehlweni wesane umuthi we Erythromycin kumbe iTetracycline masinya nje usane lusanda kuzalwa. Lokho kwenze kungakadluli ihola loba amahola amabili.

Ezindaweni ezivame ukuba lesifo se Hepatitis B loba umdlavuzo wesibindi (liver cancer), kuqakathekile ukuthi ingane ezalwa lapho inhle ihlatshwe umuthi we Hepatitis B. Lokho kuvikela ukudlulisela iHepatitis B isuka kumama isiya enganini. Phela kuvamile ukuthi umuntu wesifazana azithwale kodwa engazi ukuthi ulesifo se Hepatitis B.

Okunye nanku: nxa umuntu wesifazana elegciwane lengculaza (HIV), kumele ingane ayizalayo layo iphiwe imithi ye HIV. Funda futhi ngokumemetheka kwegciwane lengculaza uqhobo lwayo (HIV and AIDS in development).

Hlola ingane

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  • Iyafana lezinye izingane na? izitho zomzimba ziyafanana?Ziyalinga? Zisesimeniesifaneleyo? Azivuvukanga yini? Kuyimvama ukuthi ingane
  • Izalweilezitho ezivuvukileyo kodwakuphele masinya. Isikhumba sihlangene yini? Hlola ingaphnsi. Kwesinye isik hathi ungathola kulembobo efuna odokotela.
  • Iyakwanisa ukuthambisa kuhle? Kujwaleke ukuthi ingane ingaze yathambisa ngelanga lakuqala izelwe. Kodwa iqale ukuthambisa kuhle ngelanga lesibili njalo iphindaphinde kuhle kusiyaphambili. Kodwa nxa ingakwanisi ukuthambisa, kumbe njalo ithambisa umchamo omnyama kumbe onukayo, imunyese. Nxa kusehlula lokho, mhlawumbe ingane ingabe ilohlupho lwezinso (kidneys)
  • Le ngane iyakwanisa yini ukuyangaphandle (pass stool) kuhle? Nxa ingakwanisi incedise kanje: gqoka ama-glove andubana uzahloma ucikilicane womunwe wakho ngasezibunu lapho kumele kuphume khona ingcekeza (stool). Hlolisisa, mhlawumbe izibunu zivalekile. Nxa kungelambobo (anus), bonisa odokotela benze umsebenzi wabo.


Kwesinye isikhathi ukungafanani kwezito zomzimba akubalulekanga. Kodwa okunye kubonisa uhlupho olukhulu enganini. Mhlawumbe izitho ozibona zingafanani phandle zikhomba ukuthi kulezinye izitho ezingaphakathi ezingafananiyo. Hlala-ke njalo uyelusile lengane ukuze ubone ukuthi ayitshintshi yini ukuphefumula, ayitshintshi yini umbala, njalo lomthambiso wayo awutshintshi yini.

Ukwakheka kwekanda lokulingana

illustration of the above: a baby's swollen head.

Kujwalekile ukuthi amakhanda adalwe ngokungafanani njalo engalingani. Enye ingane izalwa ilekhanda elicijileyo. Enye njalo ilekhanda elikhulu elivuvukileyo ngenxa yokuhlukumezeka ngesikhathi izalwa. Kodwa lokho kuvuvuka kuyaphela ngemuva kwensuku ezilutshwana.

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hematoma

Ezinye izingane ziyopha igazi phakathi kwesikhumba sekhanda, okuthiwa yi Hematoma. Indawo lapho okubuthene khona igazi ekhanda izwakala ngobuthakathaka nxa uyibotoza. Kuyingozi ke lokho, lanxa nje kuvame ukuziphelela kodwa.

Izingane ezizalwa inyanga zingakapheleli zivame ukuba lamakhanda amancane, kodwa akhule ngokuhamba kwensuku. Kodwa nxa usola ukuthi ikhanda lincane kakhulu, kumbe njalo vele uhlala esigabeni esidume ngomkhuhlane we Zika, phangisa ubikele abezempilo bakuncedise ngengane. Funda ngolwazi olunengi nge Zika ku: Ukwanda kwemikhuhlane edalwa yimiyane (Illness from Mosquito in development).

Indebe eziqhekezekileyo

a baby with a cleft lip.

Indebe ezehlukeneyo zisobala ukubonakala (cleft lip kumbe harelip). Kodwa ukuqhekezeka kancane endebeni yaphezulu okuthiwa yi Cleft palate ayinanzeleleki. Yingakho kumele ufake umunwe ohlanzekileyo emlonyeni wengane. Bodisa umunwe phakathi ngaphezulu uzwe ukuthi indebe zihlangene kumbe kulembobo. Phela ukuqhekezeka kwendebe kwenza ukumunya kubenzima.

Ngakhoke nxa umunyisa, zama ukuvala imbobo ngomunwe ukuze ingane imunye kuhle. Nxa umqhekezo kuyi Cleft palate, ncedisa ingane ukumunya kanje: hloma ufuqele yonke ingono yebele emlonyeni wengane. Kodwa nxa lokhe kusehlula ukuthi idonse kuhle uchango, hayike lapho sekumele uyifunze ngesipunu ize ikhule. Qinisekisa ukuthi ingane ihlala isuthi ukuze ikhule kuhle. Funda Ukukhama uchago ngokusenga uchago kumama ukuze ufunze ingane.

Ukuqhekezeka kwendebe okuthiwa yi Cleft lip kuyalungiseka. Odokotela balungisa iCleft lip nxa ingane iseselenyanga ezintathu izelwe. Kodwa iCleft palate bayilungisa nxa ingane isilomnyaka izelwe. Emazweni amanengi iCleft lip le Cleft palate zilungiswa mahala. Nxa ufuna ulwazi olunengi nge Cleft lip kumbe nge Cleft palate hamba kathesi uyebuza eClinic kumbe esibhedlela esiseduze lawe.

illustration of the below: checking for a dislocated hip.

Inyonga ekumukileyo lokudalwa ukubazekile

Ezinye izingane zizalwa zilenqulu ephumele phandle. Ithambo lomlenze liyabe liphumele phandle komgodi wenqulu lapho kumele libhode kuhle khona. Kanengi lokho kuvame ukuzilungela kodwa ngemuva kwamaviki athile.

Emlenzeni egogekileyo, qala ugobise ngokufuqa imbala andubana uzabamba yonke imilenze ngokulingana. Qinisekisa ukuthi iminwe yakho ithinthe enqulwini zengane. Usungabhodisa umlenze wengane kancane uwujikelezisa usiya phansi, phezulu, phakathi laphandle. Phindaphinda ukuyibhodisa leyo milenze. Qaphela lokhu: nxa omunye umlenze usima masinyane; kumbe ulula kakhulu ekubhodeni; kumbe njalo ulukhuni; wohle wazi ukuthi kulobulima enganini.

a woman carrying a baby in a sling with his legs apart.

Usungaxwayisa unina wengane ukuthi nxa ebeletha ingane emhlane, aqale akhuphele phandle umbala ogogekileyo – njenga lapha. Ngemuva kweviki usungabuya njalo uzehlola ukuthi ingane iqhuba njani. Nxa isimo sokugogeka singatshintshanga xhumana labezempilo bayisize. Mhlawumbe okunye ongakwenza yikufaka uhlaka embaleni ogokekileyo okwamaviki athile. Uhlaka luvikela umbala uqonde ubesesimeni esifaneleyo, hatshi esobulima.

a baby with his foot turned in.
the baby with a cast on his leg.

Unyawo oIuyingwegwe

Nxa ingane izalwa ilonyawo olugobele phakathi, zama ukuluqondisa. Nxa luvuma ukuqondiseka, yenza lokho uphindaphinda okwensuku azithile. Ngokwenza njalo uzabona unyawo (kumbe inyawo zombili) zikhula zisiya esimeni esikahle. Kodwa nxa kusehlula phangisa uhambise ingane e clinic kumbe esibhedlela kobodokotela. Mhlawumbe unyawo luyabe selufuna ukuqondiswa masinya nge plaster. Ukufaka iplaster ingane isencane kuvikela ukuthi ingane ingahlinzwa njalo ingagogeki empilweni yayo yonke.

Iminwe loba amazwane angezelelweyo

illustration of the below: a small extra finger with string around it.

Okungumunywana lokho okuphuma eceleni komunye umunwe, njalo akulathambo kulula ukukujunqula kuphume. Mhlawumbe ungakubopha ngentambo kuze kuwome kodwa kuwelephansi. Kodwa nxa kulethambo elikuqinisayo, hatshi kuyekele ngoba akulimazi lutho.


Ungazihluphi ngamazwane abambeneyo njenga lawa.
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Kodwa nxa kuyiminwe embili loba emnengi ibambene, kumele leyo minwe iyehlinzwa ngodokotela ukuze isebenze kuhle.

Isifo se Down syndrome

Kulula ukubona ingane isesencane ukuthi ingabe ilimele ngasengqondweni. Mhlawumbe awunanzeli masinya, kodwa nxa ingane ilokhe ikhula iyabonakala lula. I Down syndrome yisifo esijwayelekileyo esenza ingane ibelomcabango ophansi. Izimpawu ze Down syndrome yilezi:

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Amehlo akhangele phezulu
Ubuso obuyisitshayo
Impama yesandla othambileyo elomzila owodwa
Indlebe encane elesikhumba esipheqeke phezulu
Umsipha othambileyo


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Izwane elikhulu lixamalazile
a boy using crutches while holding a girl on his shoulders; the girl holds a sign.
Khangela amandla ayabe ekumntwana ngamunye.

Kumele sazi ukuthi umfazi ozithweleyo akusuye odala i Down syndrome. Kodwa nxa lowo mfazi eleminyaka engaphezu kwamatshumi amathathu lanhlanu (35), lapho kuvamile ukuthi abelethe ingane ele Down syndrome. Lanxa kunjalo ingane ele Down syndrome iyaludinga uthando njengazo zonke izingane. Kungakho kumele uhlale uyifundisa izinto ezithile ukuze ivuleke ingqondo. Funda imininingwane egcweleyo kugwalo olulotshwe: Hesperian’s book Disabled Village Children isahluko 32.

Ukunakekela abantwana abakhubazekileyo

Inengi lokukhubazeka kwabantwana kuyelapheka ngekhaya. Futhi labodokotela labo bayakwanisa ukwelapha ukukhubazeka. Kodwa okuqakatheke kakhulu ebantwaneni abakhubazekileyo yilokhu: nikeza umntwana uthando; lalela ukuthi uthini; njalo ufunani. Dlala laye. Mnikeze ithuba lokufunda; njalo abekwazi okumele abekwazi njengabo bonke abantwana. Yemukela izipho abantwana abazilethayo. Yemukela njalo bancome ukuze bakhuthazeke ngolwazi asebelufundile.

Indlela engcono yokuvikela abantwana yikuvikela onina.


Ubunzima obukhulu ngokubeletha

Ezinye izinhlupho zokubeletha ziletha usizi ngoba zicina ngokufa kwengane. Kudabukisa imuli kanye lomphakathi jikelele. Wena-ke ongowezempilo kumele ududuze imuli ngokulahlekelwa yingane.

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Ukugezisa njalo lokugqokisa ingane. Ongakwenza kusane oluqeda kuzalwa:

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Omama bathanda ukuvikela izingane zabo ukuthi zingahotshi umoya ongcolileyo ngokubamboza ngengubo ezinengi. Lokho kwenza ingane itshiselwe kakhulu. Mbathisa ngengubo eyodwa kulungile.

Iusulasule igazi kanye lamaphumelo nxa ekhona, kodwa hatshi ukulugezisa. Amaphumelo akuqala usane oluphuma lawo kuthiwa yi meconium. Usane uqala ukulugezisa nxa sekwedlule amalanga amabili kusiya kwamathathu luzelwe. Ulugezisa igcekeza, indenda zochago kanye lamaphumelo.

Ingane igqokise njengoba nje umuntu omdala egqoka, kodwa ngezelela kancane ngoba ingane kumele ikhudumala. Kuviki lakuqala kusiya kwamabili kumele ugqokise ingane ikhanda ngoba isikhudumezi sonke somzimba siphuma siphephuke ekhanda. Tshintsha izigqoko lezitshubo nxa sezingcolile. Kodwa ungabona ijwabu lengane seliphuma amaqhutshana (rash) adalwe yibumanzi besitshubo, yekela ukuyifaka isitshubo okwesikhatshana.



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Lelikhasi langezelelwa:17 Sep 2020