Hesperian Health Guides

COVID-19: Yenziwa njani imask, ihawu lokuvala ubuso, indawo yokugezela izandla kanye lesepa

Imask ngeyokuvikela wena lami ukuthi singahlaselwa yiCOVID-19. Nxa umuntu oguliswa yiCOVID-19 egqoka imask uyabe evikela izikhwehlelo kanye lokuthimula okuvela kwabanye okuyikho okusabalalisa amagciwane (germs) emoyeni. Abantu abanengi bagula behamba bengabonisi impawu zeCOVID-19. Ngalokho-ke kumele wonke umuntu agqoke imask lapho angena khona. Lanxa lingagqoka imask emphakathini, kumele njalonje liqhelelane okwengalo ezimbili. Omunye lomunye engabambi ubuso bakhe, kodwa ligeze izandla ngasosonke isikhathi.

Yenziwa njani imask ngelembu

Yenza kanje: Goqa ilembu liphindane kabili kumbe kathathu (2 or 3 layers of cloth). Ungasebenzisa loba lilenjana leT-shirt elingakhanyeliyo. Imask ethungwe kuhle yemboza umlomo lamakhala lula. Kumele uzizwe uphefumula kuhle lanxa amakhala lomlomo kwemboziwe.

a t-shirt showing the area to cut out for fabric to make a mask.
Material cut from T-shirt folded into mask.

Imask engakathungwa

Sika ngesigelo isiqephu saphambili lasemuva ngasikhathi sinye ukuze kubumbe isiqephu esisodwa esikhulu, njengasemfanekisweni.

Amabhanti amancane amane (4) ayi 30cm ubude 3cm ububanzi (30cm by 3cm) yiwo axhunywaniswa lemask ebhoda ikhanda isiyabopha ngasesiphundu. Ilembu lemask liyi 20cm ububanzi, 35cm ubude (20cm wide by 35cm tall). Lelilenjana nxa selihlanganisiwe lagoqwa lenza imask eyi 20cm ububanzi, 17,5cm ubude. (20cm wide by 17,5cm tall).

Cloth marked to first fold in half.
Cloth marked to then fold in thirds.
Final folds for cloth through a rubber band on each end that will attach to ears.

Isifinyo kumbe ibandana mask engathungwanga

Lanxa nje isifinyo singeke sakuvikela okulamandla njenge T-shirt mask, kodwa ungakwanisa ukwenza imask elula ngesifinyo kumbe ibandana.

Goqa isifinyo sakho (handkerchief) ibezingxenye ezimbili. Goqa njalo okwaphezulu ukulethe phansi, okwaphansi kuyephezulu njengasemfanekisweni.

Xhumanisa ngentambo ezimbili ezinwebekayo (rubber band) kumbe usebenzise ibhanti lokubopha inwele. Goqa-ke imphetho ihlangane phakathi (centre).

Xhumanisa imphetho kube yinto eyodwa. Faka ilembu ebusweni, hitshela ibhanti lelo ngemva kwendlebe adubana uzavula ilembu lembese amakhala lesilevu.

Imask elula ukuthungwa

Two pieces of cloth, one on top of the other.

Quma iziqa ezimbili ezilinganayo zelembu zibe yi 25cm ubude le15cm ububanzi. (25cm by 15cm). Zilinganise lezi zombili iziqephu.

Two pieces of cloth sewn together with elastic sewn on to hold mask onto ears.

Goqa umphetho omncane oyi 1cm ngakucele elide andubana uthunge.

Phinda njalo ugoqe umphetho ongaba yi1.5cm ngakucele elifitshane adubana uzathunga. Qinisekisa ukuthi umphetho lowo ulembobo enkulu engangena intambo.

Hloma-ke intambo ngenalithi kumbe nge (bobby-pin). Qinisekisa ukuthi izihitshela ziyafika endlebeni. Mhlawumbe nxa ufuna ungasebenzisa okungamabhanti okucakileyo ongakuthungela kumask, kubhode ekhanda usukubophanisa esiphundu.

Ukwenziwa kwehawu lobuso

 Plastic bottle showing where to cut off top and bottom.

Umthonselanyana wegciwane uyakwanisa ukungena emehlweni. Kungakho ihawu lobuso elenziwa nge (2 litre soda bottle) livikela ubuso kanye lamehlo. Kodwa alikwanisi ukuvikela umlomo lamakhala. Ngalokho alikwanisi ukuvikela umphefumulo ngokupheleleyo. Kumele ugqoke imask ngaphansi kwehawu lobuso (face shield). Nxa usebenza lesacuthe kumbe umuntu ozwela katshana, gqoka ihawu lobuso kuphela, hatshi imask. Lokho wenzela ukuthi isacuthe sifunde indebe zomlomo wakho nxa ukhuluma. Ungalenza kanje lelihawu lobuso:

Plastic bottle being cut open with scissors

Sebenzisa imbodlela ye plastic ekhanyelayo.

Sika uqume kuhle phansi laphezulu.

Sika njalo kuhle usukela phezulu usiyaphansi. Sika kulingane lobuso, kodwa ungavali indlebe.

Plastic bottle face shield with ties attached in upper corners and padding for forehead across top.

Namathisela ilenjana eligoqiweyo kumbe into etofozekayo njenge (sponge) kuhawu lobuso lapho okuzathintana khona lobuso. Lokho ukwenzela ukuthi ungasutshulwa lihawu esiphaqeni kumbe ngithi ebunzini.

Bhoboza imbobo ngasemakhoneni womabili njengasemfanekisweni. Faka intambo eyiyo ezabambanisa ihawu lobuso.

Nxa ufuna ukuthi ihawu lobuso lingaginqi, gxamuza ihawu lakho emanzini afakwe isipunu esigcweleyo somuthi wokugezisa (detergent). Likhuphe-ke ihawu lakho, usuliyeka liqale lome andubana uzaligqoka. Khumbula ukuhlala uligezisa njalonje.

Ukwaka indawo evulwa ngenyawo yokugezela izandla

 Hand washing station operated by foot pedal.
TIPPY TAP
Geza izandla ngesepa
Ungahloma intambo embobeni yesivalo sembodlela andubana ubophe ifindo
Bhoboza lapha
Lengisa imbodlela ngesibambiso sayo egodweni
Imbodlela kumele ihlale igcwele amanzi
Lugodo lokulengisa imbodlela lesepa
Ubhaxa
Isepa lentambo
Ngamatshe avike ukuchaphaza kwamanzi
Lugodo oluvimbe iplaka lokunyathela ukuze lingachaphazelwa ngamanzi
Lugodo lokunyathela luxhumane lentambo yesivalo sembodlela

Isepa lokunye ongakukhetha nxa ugeza izandla.

Ukugeza izandla ngamanzi langesepa kuqakathekile kakhulu ngoba kuvikela imikhuhlane kanye leCOVID-19. Ungageza izadla loba ngayiphi isepa. Kungaba ngeyokugeza inwele, eyokuwatsha kumbe eyokuhlamba imiganu (izitsha). Umhlobo wamasepa utholakala uyizigaqa loba uyimpuphu (powder). Nxa ususwele isepa yokugeza, sebenzisa umlotha, itshebetshebe kumbe udaka. Guxuza izandla zonke angathi ugeza ngesapa. Ungaqeda lokho usungahlambulula kuhle ngamanzi. Mhlawumbe ungazenzela lokhu:

(Crude soap) Isepa yokugeza: Thela umlotha ogcwala isandla esisodwa kumbe ezimbili phakathi kwe pan elamafutha (grease) atshisayo. Vubanisa konke ndawonye.

(Alcohol-based hand rub). I alcohol based hand rub: hlanganisa kokubili 2 parts isopropyl kumbe i rubbing alcohol 99% alcohol le 1 part yamanzi, le aloe vera gel (ngumhluzi) kumbe iglycerol.

(Bleach-based hand wash). Ibleach based -hand wash yenziwa kanje: Hlanganisa izingxenyana ezingamatshumi amathathu lane zamanzi kungxenyana eyodwa eyi 3.5% ye bleach esetshenziswa endlini (kumbe izipunywana ezintathu ze bleach kungxenye ye litre yamanzi), kumbe njalo izingxenyana ezingamatshumi amahlanu lambili zamanzi kuhlanhlanganiswe kungxenye eyodwa eyi 5.25% ye bleach.) Mhlawumbe izipunywana ezimbili ze bleach kuhlanganiswe lengxenye yamanzi).

Ukwenziwa kwesepa

Isepa elesisindo esiyi 4kg yenziwa kanje:

  • 3 litres kumbe 13 cups zamafutha ezithelo (vegetable oil). Loba nje kungaba yi 2.75kg yamafutha. Zama ukusebenzisa loba yiwaphi amafutha ongawathola.
  • 370grams ze Lye kumbe i caustic soda/ sodium hydroxide. Konke lokhu kutholakala emakhemisi ngoba kuyalimaza.
  • 1.2 litres kumbe amakomitsho amahlanu wamanzi alula awempompini. Nxa kuyikuthi usebenzise amanzi womthombo kumbe awomfula, hlanganisa ingxenyana ye Lye (¼ teaspoon of Lye) ku 1 litre yamanzi. Usungagoqoza konke ndawonye. Ungaqeda lokho beka eceleni kucengeke kumbe ngithi kunikame. Uzabona yonke ingcekeza isicengekile yabuthana phansi. Usungacenga lawo manzi (soft water) ngoba yiwo okumele uwasebenzise.

Ukusebenzisa ingcekeza kumbe amafutha angcolileyo

Ungenza isepa ngamafutha angcolileyo (dirty oil or rancid fat), kodwa kumele uqale uwakhuphe ingcekeza. Ingcekeza ungayikhupha kanje: hlanganisa amafutha lamanzi kulingane. Thela embizeni kuxhwathe okwesikhatshana. Usungakhupha-ke kuphole. Kungaphola, usungawongula (skim off) phezulu wonke amafutha. Nxa kulokhe kunuka, phinda njalo upheke ngamanzi kuze kuphele iphunga. Nxa amafutha elezicucu zengcekeza wacenge esatshisa ngelembu.

Amakha

Amakha kumbe umhlobo wamafutha (oil) wenza isepa inukelele kuhle. Isepa ye 4kg, hlanganisa lokhu: Izipunywana ezine ze sassafras oil, lezimbili ze citronella kumbe ilavender oil, loba nje isipunywana esisodwa se clove kumbe ilemoni. Nxa njalo ufuna isepa egcina isikhumba sihlanzekile, ungangezelela isipunywana esisodwa kumbe zibembili ze neem, moringa, jatropha kumbe umkhomo (baobab).

2 pots, wooden spoon, chunks of fat, packet of lye, rubber gloves, and wooden box mold.

Ongakusebenzisa nxa usenza isepa

  • Amabhodo amabili, umganu omkhulu kumbe isitsha, ibhakede lensimbi, hatshi elenziwa nge Aluminum.
  • Isitsha kumbe umganu omkhulu ongathwala amafutha.
  • Uphini lokugoqoza.
  • Ikomitshi yokulinganisa (measuring cup).
  • Isikali sokulinganisa isisindo (weighing scale).
  • Ibhokisana (mold) leplaka elokuphathela imvubelo yesepa. Ungasebenzisa loba lixolo le coconut.
  • Sebenzisa ilembu, iphepha le Wax, kumbe amahlamvu amakhulu ongagoqela ngawo isepa isesemanzi ukuze ixexebuke kuhle nxa isiwomile.

Isiqondiso

Hand touching pot to check warmth.
  1. Thela iLye kuqala emanzini. Uzezwa imvubelo isitshisa yodwa. Melela kutshise okwesikhatshana. Ungalingi ugxamuze umunwe phakathi ngoba ungatsha. Thinta imbiza yakho phandle ukuthi uzwe kumbe iloku isatshisa.
  2. Ncibilikisa amafutha ngokuwakhudumeza.
  3. Thatha iLye leyi esihlanganiswe lamanzi uyithele phakathi kwembiza yamafutha asencibilikile. Goqoza okwemizuzo elitshumi lantathu (30 minutes) ukuze kujiye.
  4. Blocks of soap piled on top of each other.
  5. Nxa sekujiyile thela kubhokisana (mold), usuyeka lapho okwamalanga amabili. Nxa lokhe kulunama kulamafutha phezulu, yekela kuze kuwome.
  6. Nxa isepa isiwomile, usungasika kuhle iziqephu ngengqamu kumbe ngewayila.
  7. Usungabuthelela iziqephu uzigcine okwamaviki amane kusiya kwayisithupha (4 to 6 weeks). Ungalingi uyisebenzise masinyane isatshisa ngoba ingakusubula isikhumba.
  8. Person shaving piece of soap off bar to test.
    Tongue touching shaved piece of soap to test for sharpness.
  9. Ukuthi uzwe ukuthi isepa isilungele ukusetshenziswa xexebula ucezwana usuluthintisa elimini. Ungezwa kubabela phansi kumbe kutshaqela phansi, isepa iyabe isilungile. Usungayigoqela kuhle ukuze ihlale ilunama.

Inhlupho

Nxa isepa inambitheka ngokuhaqaza ulimi, imvubelo ye Lye iyabe iyiyo enengi. Kodwa nxa inganambitheki ipholile, iLye iyabe isilela.

Khungakho nxa wenze imboza yesepa, ungaphinda njalo wenze kanje:

  • Quma isepa ibezimvuthu ngezandla ezigqoke amaglove. Faka imvuthu lezo embizeni elamanzi ayi 2.8 litres kumbe amakomitsho alitshumi lambili.
  • Xhwathisa kancane-kancane okwemizuzo elitshumi (10 minutes) njalo ugoqoza.
  • Nxa isepa ile Lye elutshwana, ngezelela. Kodwa nxa iLye yeqile ungangezelela ngamafutha njengalokho okwenze ekuqaleni ku step2. Goqoza kuze kujiye kakhulu kubambe isipunu ogoqoza ngaso.
  • Thela-ke ebhokisini wenze yonke imininingwane engiyichaze phambilini ku step 4 to 6.

Izihloko ezihambisanayo ongangena kuzo




Lelikhasi langezelelwa:07 Aug 2020