Hesperian Health Guides

COVID-19: Inhlobo ezitshiyeneyo ze vaccines

Asemanengi ama COVID-19 vaccines. Wonke ayavikela i COVID-19 njalo wonke aphephile. Wena nje ongakwenza yikuhlatshwa ijekiseni ukuze wehlise izinga lokuhlaselwa lokusabalalisa i COVID-19.

unesi uhlaba umama ijekiseni.

I vaccine isebenza ngedlela ezinengi zokulwa le COVID-19. Ivikela umzimba wakho ngokwakha amasotsha womzimba (antibodies). Kuvamile ukuthi ivaccine ihlatshwe engalweni ngaphansi kwehlombe. Nxa usufuna ukuhlatshwa kwesibili ukuze uvikeleke ngokugcweleyo hlabisa ngemva kwamaviki amthathu kusiya kwalitshumi lambili (3 to 12wks), kusiya ngokuthi usebenzise hlobo bani lwe vaccine.

Okuqakathekileyo yikuthi ayikho ngitsho leyodwa ivaccine engakwenza ugule ngeCOVID-19.

Ama vaccines lawa aphephile njalo ayasebenza

Ayasebenza wonke ama vaccines. Wena kumbe abanye bakhona asebake bahlatshwa ivaccine yokuzivikela kokuthile. Kodwa lokhe liphila lalamhlanje ngenxa yokuzivikela. Imikhuhlane enjenge polio le smallpox yayibulala abantu kudala. Ngenxa ye vaccine leyo mikhuhlane seyanyamalala.

I COVID-19 yakhandwa ngesiphangiphangi, manje asazi ukuthi iphephe kungakanani?

lumdwebo ubonisa abantu emhlabeni wonke besebenza ekwenzeni ivaccine entsha: umuntu ugcwalisa imbodlela ezincane ngomuthi, omunye uhlola imbodlela i beaker, omunye usebenzisa imicroscope le computer, omunye uthutha ivaccine eyisa kundawo ezitshiyeneyo.

Wonke ama vaccine ahloliwe, awalangozi, awahlukumezi umzimba njalo alamandla wokusebenza ngokuphephileyo. I COVID-19 yahlolwa yasetshenziswa ebantwini abanengi abangaphezukwe 250,000 (people) abemihlobo etshiyeneyo, belemikhuhlane etshiyeneyo njalo beqhamuka emazweni ahlukeneyo. Umphumela wakhona waba muhle. Akekho ngitsho loyedwa owafayo kumbe owaguliswa yi vaccine. Yingakho yahle yaphangiselwa yanikwa abantu leyi vaccine ngoba sebeleqiniso lokuthi iphephile.

Khona nje ukucubungula nge vaccine kwaqala kudala I COVID-19 ingakafiki. Ukuqhamuka kwamanye amagciwane we Corona ngo 2002 i SARS lango 2012 ukuqhamuka kwe MERS kwenza igcitshi zolwazi (abakhandi bemithi) bakhande ama vaccine alamandla wokuvikela imikhuhlane yonke yeCorona. Yingakho kwabalula ukukhanda i COVID-19 vaccine ngesiphangiphangi ngoba babevele sebelolwazi lokukhanda imihlobo ye vaccine ye Corona.

I sebenza njani ivaccine? Iyagulisa yini? Ingakutshintsha yini ubunguwe bakho (DNA)?

Inhlobo zama vaccine akhona njalo asetshenziswayo angaphezulu kwe 70 COVID-19 vaccines. Wonke lawa ama vaccine ayasebenza kuhle. Njalo asebenza kanje: aqala ngokufundisa umzimba ukuthi linjani igciwane le COVID-19. Umzimba ke wona usuziphakamela usakha amasotsha (antibodies) ayiwo azolwa legciwane leli.

  1. (The inactivated virus vaccine) i vaccine yegciwane elifileyo. Loluhlobo lwe vaccine alugulisi muntu. Luhlobo lwe (Sinopharm, SinoVac, others).
  2. (The viral vector vaccine). Loluhlobo lwe vaccine lufakwa ucezwana lwegciwane okuthiwa yi spike protein. (Johnson&Johnson, Sputnik V, AstraZeneca, others).
  3. (The recombinant protein vaccine) yenziwa ngokuvubanisa ndawonye okuyizicucu ze spike protein (Novavax).
  4. The messenger RNA (mRNA) umsebenzi wayo yikutshela umzimba ukuthi uzakhele i ‘spike protein’. I spike protein yiyo ezancedisa umzimba ukwaka amasotsha (antibodies) ayiwo azalwisana legciwane le COVID-19. I mRNA ayiphambanisi izakhi zofuzo (genes). Ngakho ayitshintshi ubunguwe bakho (DNA). Njalo i mRNA ibuthakathaka okungangokuthi iphanga incibilike inyamalale masinyane nje nxa iqeda ukwenza umsebenzi wayo. (Moderna, Pfizer, others).

I COVID-19 ingugiqigonqo. Iyaguquka itshintshatshintshe njengawo wonke amagciwane. Indawo ezinengi sezilemhlobo emnengi ehlukeneyo (variants) yegciwane le COVID-19. Inengi-ke lama vaccine lilamandla wokulwa layo yonke imihlobo yamagciwane. Kodwa amanye ama vaccine kufuneka angezelelwe amandla ngoba amagciwane ahlezi eguquka njalonje. Njengoba ivaccine ye fluenza (flu) ihlala itshintshwa minyaka yonke, ngalokho leye COVID-19 kumele ibenjalo.

ingazi njani ukuthi akusoze kuqamuke uhlupho phambilini?

Uhlupho oluvela ngemva kokuhlatshwa I COVID-19 vaccine yibuhlungu lapho ohlatshwe khona; lokuvuvuka; lokutshintsha kombala wesikhumba lapho ohlatshwe khona; lokutshaywa likhanda; lenhlungu emalungeni (joints); lokudinwa komzimba; loqhuqho (fever). Uqhuqho lubangwa yikuthi umzimba uyabe usuqala ukwakha amasotsha (antibodies) ayiwo azakuvikela ku COVID-19. Kujayelekile ukuthi umuntu nxa eqeda kuhlatshwa azizwe engasaphilanga kuhle okwensuku ezimbili kusiya kwezintathu (2 to 3 days). Nxa usuphinda okwesibili kulapho inhlungu ezibamandla khona. Kodwa abanye vele abezwa lutho.

Akuvamanga ukuthi umzimba uhlamuke (allergic) ungezwani le COVID-19 vaccine. Kodwa nxa uqeda ukuhlatshwa ungahambi, mana okwemizuzwana engu 15 kusiya ku 30. Lokho kwenzelwa ukuthi kubonakale ukuthi umzimba wakho uguquka njani.

Ingcitshi zolwazi zithi ivaccine entsha nxa ingalunganga ilohlupho, uhlupho lwayo luvame ukuvela sobala ngemva kwenyanga ezimbili uyisebenzisile. Kodwa okwakathesi akukatholakali lutho nge COVID-19 vaccines.

Izakhamizi zakithi ezinengi zatshaywa yi COVID-19, kodwa abanye lokhe besala ukuhlatshwa. Ngingabakuthaza njani ukuthi bahlatshwe bazivikele?

Indoda iyakhulama.
Wonke umuntu kumele athole i COVID-19 vaccine kungelambadalo.

Zinengi izizathu ezenza abantu bengafuni ukuhlatshwa. Kungaba yikuthi baphathwa kubi ngaphambilini, kumbe vele abathembi lutho olulethwa nguHulumende. Kumbe vele basola yona ivaccine ngezizathu ezithile. Kuba ngamandla-ke nxa ezindabeni laku social media befafaza imbiko etshiyeneyo. Lokho kwenza abangafuniyo bahle babelukhuni. Kumbula ukuthi I COVID-19 ihlasela kakhulu labo abangela zinto zokuzisiza (resources), lalabo abavele bezigulela, njalo lalabo abahlala endaweni eminyeneyo. Ngalokho, kuqakathekile ukuthi bonke labo abasengozini yokuhlaselwa yi COVID-19 bachazelwe kuhle ukuze bayehlatshwa:

  • qqala ubalalele insolo zabo andubana uzabachazela kuhle nge COVID-19 vaccine. Ukulalela umuntu ekhuluma izizathu zakhe kumnikeza ithemba nxa usumchazela okuyiqiniso.
  • khuluma usenza. Hlatshwa wena phambikwabo bonke bekukhangele. Lokho kubapha ithemba lokuthi labo behlatshwe.
  • batshele, njalo babonise ngosewahlatshwayo njalo layikuthi ulokhe ephephile engaguli. Lapho uyabe ubonisa ukuthi i COVID-19 vaccine iphephile.
  • chazela labasakhulayo ukuthi labo kabahlatshwe i COVID-19 vaccine ukuze bazivikele, bavikele lezihlobo labangane.

Bane abantu abakhulumayo.

Sisakaza emsakazweni ngazo zonke indimi ukuze izinkokeli zomphakathi lezamasonto zichazele njalo zikhuthaze abantu ukuthi bayehlatshwa.
Kuqembu lethu sixoxisana ngalokho abantu abakuzwayo labakwesabayo nge COVID-19 vaccine. Sacina sibakhuthaza ukuthi bengesabi ivaccine ngoba iyafanana nje lokudla, iphephile.
Lapha abantu sebesazi ukuthi ivaccine iloncendo olungakanani, njalo iphephile lebantwaneni bethu. Phela imithi ekhandwa lapha isetshenziswa ngumhlaba wonke jikele. Abakhandi be COVID-19 vaccine lokhe bengabantu banye abenza yonke lemithi esetshenziswa emhlabeni wonke jikelele.
Abantu balembono engajwayelekile nge COVID-19 vaccine. Kodwa, hatshi ngiyazama ukubaqondisa lapho engibona belahleka khona.

Ngonjani okumele ahlatshwe i COVID-19 vaccine?

Wonke umuntu kumele ahlatshwe i COVID-19 vaccine. Kodwa nxa ivaccine isilela, qala ngokuhlaba labo abagulayo labavele belempilo ezisengozini, njengalaba:

  • abasebenza ezibhedlela ngoba baqeda isikhathi belabantu abaphethwe yi COVID-19 leminye imikhuhlane.
  • abasebenza emhlambini ngoba izigulani zigcwele emhlambini.
  •  umsebenzi wezempilo ukuluma lomama ohleli esihlalweni sabakhubazekileyo eClinic.
    Singakuhlaba emlenzeni nxa ungafuni ukuzwa ubuhlungu engalweni.
  • asebekhulile ogogo labokhulu ngoba impilo zabo zisengozini yokuhlaselwa yi COVID-19 okwedlula labo abatsha.
  • abavele begula okuthile njengezilima; abaphethwe yinhliziyo; izinso; amaphaphu; abalemizimba ekhule okwedlulisileyo; abagula ingqondo; kanye leminye imikhuhlane ethile.

Ebantwaneni labazithweleyo kulokhe kusacutshungulwa kabanzi kudingwa ukuthi i COVID-19 vaccine iletha ngozi bani kubo. Okuliqiniso yikuthi ukuhlaselwa yi COVID-19 uzithwele kuyingozi kakhulu ukwedlula nxa kade uhlatshwe ivaccine.

Nxa uke wagula i COVID-19 kodwa wasila, qala ume ukuhlabisa kuze kwedlule inyanga ezintathu (3 months), ngemva kwalokho usungahlatshwa-ke i COVID-19 vaccine.

Kwenzakalani nxa usuhlatshwe ivaccine?

Ixuku labadala labantwana ndawonye bethwele amasambulela abhalwe amabizo wenhlobo ezitshiyeneyo zama vaccine. I Coronavirus idwetshwe yabalibhola eliyeqayeqayo phezulu kwamasambulela. Ligxuma lapha, ligxume lapho, ligxume laphaya kuwo wonke amasambulela lingelampumelelo. Njalo amasambulela wonke abhalwe inhlobo ezitshiyeneyo ze COVID-19 vaccine: Pfizer; Moderna; AstraZeneca; Sputnik V; Sinopharm; Covaxin; Soberana02.

Nxa uqala nje ukuhlatshwa lomzimba lawo uyaqala ukulungisa amandla wokuzivikela. Ngemva kweviki ezimbili uzabe usuvikelekile ungasaguliswa nzima yi COVID-19.

Uma lonke eqejini lenu selahlatshwa, asikho isidingo sokuthi lifake ama mask nxa lindawonye. Phela umuntu ohlatshiweyo ulakho ukuzidibanisa labangahlatshwanga ngoba vele sevikelekile.

Ngaphandle kokuthi sonke size sihlabise, i COVID-19 ayingeke iphele. Izaqubeka njalonje igulisa labo abangahlatshwanga. Abasengozini ngabadala, labagula itshukela, labalohlupho lokuphefumula nzima, labanye abalemikhuhlane ethile. Yingakho wonke umuntu kubalulekile ukuthi ahlale evikelekile ekuhlaselweni yi COVID-19: gqoka imask, geza izandla ngasosonke isikhathi, ungazibandakanisi lexuku labantu, njalo hlalani liqhelelene (2 metres apart).

Ukungalingani lokuqhamuka komkhuhlane

I COVID-19 ivumbulule yaveza okunengi ngokungalingani kwamazwe labantu jikele. Ukuvalelwa kwabantu ngenxa yegciwane le Corona kwahlukumeza abanengi. Abanye baphelelwa yimisebenzi. Abanye baphelelwa yizinto zokuphilisa (resources). Abanye njalo behluleka ukufinyelela ezibhedlela lase ma Clinic. Kathesi abantu abalamali, balambile abanye sebaxotshwa lasezindlini. Yingakho badanile abantu. Bahlukumezeke kakhulu emoyeni lasengqondweni abantu. Zonke lezi izinhlupho ziqedwa yikuthi abantu ababambane, njalo abakhuthaze izinkokeli zesigaba loHulumende ukuthi kangenele ancedise labo abasebuzimeni: baphiwe imithi, lokudla lokunengi.

Ukungalingani kwamazwe kwavela sobala ngesikhathi sokwabelwana i COVID-19 vaccine. Amazwe anothileyo yiwo avotshomula ivaccine enengi kuqala. Amazwe ahluphekayo lakhathesi lokhe esalele emsileni. Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi abantu bakulawo mazwe bazahlala begula besifa nge COVID-19. Kungakho into okumele yenziwe yileyi:

4 yabantu ebambe ibhakani “Sekela ivaccine yabantu.”
  • I COVID-19 vaccine kumele yabelwane ngokulinganayo kuwo wonke amazwe kungelasidingo sokuthi ngubani olamandla wokubhadala ngcono.
  • Ikampani ezikhanda imithi kumele zifundise amazwe ukwenza ivaccine ukuze ilizwe lihambise masinyane ivaccine ebantwini balo.
  • I World Trade Organization kumele ihlabe umkhosi omkhulu ngokumemetheka kwe COVID-19, njalo yesule isivumelwano lesi esinikeza bona bodwa igunya lamalungelo ngezokuthengiselana (Trade-Related Aspects of International Property Rights). Nxa bengesula kungaba kuhle ngoba kunganikeza amanye amazwe ukuthi bazikandele ivaccine yabo.

Izihloko ezihambisanayo ongangena kuzo



Lelikhasi langezelelwa:19 May 2021